Q-1. My child is not able to speak what to do?  My child cannot speak clearly. What to do?

A-1. First check whether your child is having ‘tongue tie’ or not. ‘Tongue tie’ is a condition in which the  

         tongue is attached with its base by a thin skin like structure. Because of this the free movement of

         the tongue gets restricted and your child cannot speak properly. To check this ask your child to take

         out his tongue fully. If the tip of the tongue rolls inside then you need to consult an ENT surgeon. It

         is a small surgery, nothing to worry about. If there is no ‘tongue tie’ or after correcting ‘tongue tie’   

         following are the methods that helps your child to speak.

·         Blowing air and holding breath are essential parts of speech. To make your child learn these you can ask your child to;

1.       Blow bubbles

2.       Blow candles and increase the number of candles gradually putting them one behind the other.

3.       Blow whistle

4.       Play mouthorgan

5.       Blow balloons. Initially it would be difficult for your child to blow balloon, so you blow the balloon repeatedly so that it gets loose and then ask your child to blow it.

6.       Play fluite

·         Buccal muscles play an important role in speech. To strengthen these muscle;

1.       Make your child eat sticky food and that too by licking.

2.       Give lolly-pop and ask him to lick

3.       Make your child chew the food several time.

·         Mirror technique: Very important and very effective.

You first sit in front of a full size mirror. Let your child sit in your lap. You look to your face in the mirror and start speaking single-single letters loudly with broad pronunciation. Do not look at your child, keep looking to yourself and continue this daily for minimum of half an hour morning and half an hour evening. Gradually your child will start doing the same looking to him in mirror; still you do not have to look at him.

Do not go very fast, do not introduce too many letters at a time, do not expect too much from your child, be patient and allow your child to take his own time to learn. Each child is different and so some may learn fasters and others may take some more time.


Q-2. My child is 6 years old and understands numbers in serial order but when it comes to which

              number comes before and which comes after , she gets confused. How to solve this?

A-2.It is very important to make your child learn conceptually. First you need to explain her the        

             concept of numbers by introducing them in day to day life. Two eyes, one nose, six dinning

             chairs, ten steps, three spoons, five fingers on one hand and ten on two etc. There are lot of

             finger games available on internet and even in a good book-shop like crossword. You can make

             your child learn the concept of numbers in a fun way method. You make a train of numbers

             starting from 1 ending with 10. Let 1 be the engine and 10 be the guard. Making noise of train

             play with the child describing in fun way, one is the engine then comes two………and 10 is the

             guard. After your child repeats everything with you, you act as if the road is blocked and now

             the train will have to move in opposite direction. Repeat the same song but differently, we are

             going reverse and here comes 10 and then comes……… last is the engine. Once you are done with

             this you take thick drawing paper and cut ten square pieces of increasing size, from smallest to

             biggest. Write 1 on the smallest and 10 on the biggest. Ask the child to find out from the size of

             the square which one is smaller/bigger. Gradually convert this concept of size into the concept of

           numbers. Once you get involved into your child’s problem you will find lot many other ways of

making the concept clearer by different fun-way methods of your own.


Q-3. How to make my child calculate? How to teach Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division?

A-3. You will find the answer in the book ‘ Functional skills’. It is available on this website free of cost.

I will explain it briefly. Once the concept of number gets clear, make your child recite the numbers from 1-100 and from 100-1 daily. There after start with addition. Start with day to day situations and finger games. Say, baby was alone before mamma entered the room now baby and mamma is 1+1, two. Go on doing repeatedly and make it joyful. Maximum addition is 9+9, so what we did was we divided  9 into three digits at a time three times i.e,1,2,3(3 digits)-4,5,6(3 digits)-7,8,9(3 digits). If you want to add 9 to any digit, say 5 . Start calculating from five onwards like this-6,7,8-9,10,11-12,13,14. So 14 is the answer. Likewise if you want to add 8 then add 3,3,2 digits forward. For 7- 3,3,1 digit forward. For 6- 3,3. For 5-3,2. For 4-3,1. And so on. Similarly start explaining subtraction in day to day situations and then the three digit method in reverse. Means you need to go backwards.  

For multiplication make your child learn tables first. It is ok if he does not understands the meaning, first let him do it by heart. Once he has expertise in tables and can answer even after asking randomly start explaining what it means. There are flash-cards available in market you can use them or otherwise using anything say marbles or beads or simple playing card you can explain him what multiplication means. Two marbles two times is four, five marbles four times is twenty etc.

For division use similar method but use the tables in reverse. Gradually as the child progresses explain him about those divisions which are not exactly divisible by the divider.


Q-4.My child is stubborn what to do?

        My child is very mischievous, how to handle him?

        My child is arrogant, what to do?

        My child does not listen what we say, I get frustrated.

A-4. I have put all these questions under one heading because the core problem is same and so the solution.

First of all I want all the parents to understand the difference between a person and his behavior.  We all are at a different emotional and functional levels at a different given time and in a different situations. We may respond to a similar situation differently at different time and that depends upon our psyche at that particular moment. If I shout at some particular person today that does not mean that I am always like that. This was a temporary behavior for a temporary period of time. As a person I am different and I behave differently in different situations.

 To understand and manage your children constructively we need to separate the child from his behavior. What is not acceptable is his behavior and not the child. Being stubborn, mischievous, arrogant and so on are the behaviors we want our children to change.

Now, since we know that your child is a person-a permanent phenomenon and his behavior- a temporary phenomenon, we will stop labeling our children as we did till today. We will not call them by their behavior (i.e. stubborn, arrogant….) instead we will explain that this behavior of yours is not acceptable to me. Transfer this message clearly and then use BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION TECHNIQUE.

(It is explained at length under Articles)


Q-5.My child is not able to write. My child can write but it is not readable to all.

A-5. Our children have poor pincer grip because of the low strength and tone of the muscles, especially the smaller muscles of the hands. It is important to strengthen the muscles first. Child need to do following exercise;

·         Sand game: Allow your child to play with hands in sand. Once child starts enjoying with sand, heat the sand a bit and continue with the play.

·         Plastic or similar material beads are available in market. Take one thick non-malleable wire and teach your child to thread the beads into that wire. Gradually decrease the size of the beads and instead of non-malleable wire, use loose but thick tread.

·         Non-toxic, colourful clay is freely available in market. Teach your child to play with clay and encourage him to make different shapes out of the clay.

·         Give smiley (soft ball) and ask your child to press it holding in hand.

·         Pour water in a tub. Put a wide mouthed bottle in the center of the tub. Take one piece of sponge and ask your child to soak the sponge with the water in the tub and then squeeze the sponge to pour the water in the bottle that is placed in the center of the tub. Repeat this several times. You can make it interesting by pouring coloured water. Gradually decrease the size of the bottle mouth.

·         While making roties/paratha, give your child a little dough to play with.

·         Take some different coloured beads and hide them in the non-toxic clay. Ask your child to take the beads one by one.

·         Give notebook and pencil and teach your child to draw sleeping, standing, slanting lines. Gradually introduce curves in C,S and O shapes.

·         Once you understand the purpose of a doing these exercises you will be able to find out lot more of your own.

Q-6. My child is not able to answer the questions.

        My child does not understand question and answer.

        My child does not remember question and answer.

A-6- First of all you need to find out how your child is being taught by the school teacher and/or the tuition teacher. Usually at schools and tuitions the teachers refer to Digests for questions and answers. They do not make the child understand the lesion first and then the Q/A. We do the same at home. More over for our children just knowing the lesion is not enough. They first need to learn the concept of question and answer. We need to explain them what do we mean by ‘question’ and ‘answer’. Start explaining about this concept by narrating the day to day activities every day since morning and then ask questions based on those activities. For example, ‘It is 7 o’clock in the morning and you got up at 6-30. It is 8-30 and you are ready for tuition.’ After some time ask your child, ‘today you got up at what time? And at what time your tuition teacher came?’ Likewise by incorporating different daily activities make the concept of ‘question’ clear.  Thereafter start with short stories of 5-6 sentences and asked your child to repeat it. Once you are sure that your child has understood the meaning of the story ask her questions related to that story. Gradually your child will learn the concept of ‘question’ and ‘answer’.

Now start with the lesions of the text book. Explain the lesion thoroughly, ask the child to repeat the meaning of the lesion in his own words. Ask questions related to the topics in that lesion and let the child form his own answers. Note down his answers in his own words and repeat these answers daily. Do not make your child mug up the readymade answers from the digest or anywhere else.

Once you will understand the problem of your child you will find newer ways to deal with it. Do not get disheartened, do not lose patience, you can do it so DO IT TO YOUR FULLEST.

Q-7. My child does not mix with others.

         My child is afraid of going out.

         My child cannot cope up in crowded places.

A-7. My answers are applicable to all trainable mentally challenged children but for this question you need to find out whether your child comes under Autistic spectrum or not. If so you need to follow different remedial measures. Visit this link If not so, this answer will help you.

When you want to make your child learn something, you need to decide the GOAL first. Here the GOAL is mixing with the society fearlessly. Once your GOAL is clear, break the ultimate GOAL into few smaller goals. This is known as TASK ANALYSIS. The first step need to be easier and on reaching it, reward your child appropriately. For example, if you want your child to mix with others;

·         Invite your one or two friends at your home and all of you play together with your child.

·         Call the same friends with their children and play.

·         Once your child is comfortable playing with them, you leave the place in between for few minutes.

·         Arrange a small party for children at home. Let them play and reward all of them for something or the other.

·         Repeat as per your need and then start doing this in a similar way outside. May be parks or say beaches or somebody else’s house.

·         These children’s social quotient is very high and they love being with people. Only thing we need to be careful about is the way we introduce them to the society.

·         Do not worry, our special children are basically loving and caring so people starts loving them once they know them. 

If your child is otherwise comfortable with people at home but cannot cope up outside, gradually introduce him to the world outside. Do his favorite activities outside. Take him for a walk or a drive daily. Reward him often for his outside activities.

Once you understand your child and his problems, you will find your own ways to solve them.

Q-8. Child is not eating on his own.

         Child is not able to make pieces of ROTI (Indian bread)

A-8. To make your child eat on his own is a training program and you need to form that on your own. You can use the TASK ANALYSIS method; break the task of eating, into few smaller steps. On achieving each step, reward your child positively.

If your child is not able to do pieces of Roti, first teach him this task by making him tear paper.

Q-9. If my first born is a Down’s kid, should I have a second child?

A-9. Yes, you should have a second child. Down’s kids are very loving and caring. They love to have siblings of their own plus they are good imitators so as your younger child would grow, by imitating him/her your Down’s kid would grow faster. Moreover, you as a parent need to get satisfaction of having one normally growing child.

Q-10. What are the chances of having a Down’s kid in my next pregnancy?

A-10. The cause is not known and so chances of having another Down’s baby is not known but there are Ultrasound Markers (non-invasive test) which can help in diagnosing the possibilities of Down’s antenatal. You need to go through few more invasive tests like blood test and amniotic fluid test during your next pregnancy.  Your Obstetrician can guide you better.

Q-11.While handling my special kid my other child feels neglected. How to deal with it?

A-11.This is an issue we all face while dealing with our children. It is not because one kid being special amongst the two, this is usual even between two normal siblings. Here we need to put some extra efforts to make the older one accept the special child with love and care. It is very important to make the normal child feel responsible towards the special child. We need to do this by our behavior and not by preaching and teaching. I have mentioned ‘Sibling Rivalry’ in detail in the section of ‘Articles’ under the heading of ‘Difficult Issues’.

Q-12.My 14 months old Down’s kid is still not walking. What to do?

A-12. Many normal kids do not start walking at the age of 14 months. As your kid is a Down’s kid may be you are extra conscious but let me tell you it is not advisable to encourage a Down’s kid to walk earlier. Down’s kid has a low muscle tone. When a normal kid tries to stand or walk on his own the body weight is distributed between muscles and bones. When a Down’s kid tries to stand or walk on his own because the muscles are flabby they cannot bear the body weight and most of the weight falls on bones and thereby on joints. It is better that instead of worrying about the child’s walking encourage the child for physiotherapy to strengthen his muscles and there after allow him to walk, otherwise the joint degenerative process with set in early.

Q-13. My child always denies by saying ‘no’ when asked to do something. I have to try hard every time to convince him. I get frustrated at times. What to do?

A-13. First of all we will remove the absolute terms like ‘always’ or ‘never’ from our language. As we know child does not know much about desirable and undesirable behavior. He repeats the behavior on the basis of amount of attention he gets for that particular behavior. If he gets attention when he denies something by saying ‘no’ he will continue doing that each time he gets an opportunity. If he does not get attention, he will gradually stop repeating that behavior. When you want to change a behavior that is truly an obstacle to your child’s growth you need to apply Behavior Modification Technique. (See section on ‘Articles’)

Q-14. How to increase the memory power of my son?

A-14. To me it is all about training. If you want your child to remember things in a better way, you need to teach him in a better way, the way that the child enjoys.  Learning need to be simple, basic, conceptual and as per the child’s level of understanding. For our special kids regular repetition is an essential part of learning.

Q-15. My son wants to learn cycling but he is afraid of doing so. What to do?

A-15. When you want your child to complete one task the first step is willingness here that part is over because willingness is already there. Now comes breaking the main task into few smaller tasks (Task Analysis).  Your son can start driving a bicycle having two extra wheels for support. Once he is confident with his driving, he can proceed further by removing the extra supports one by one.

Q-16. Down’s children are heavy weight. How we can control their weight and what are the dangers of heavy weight?

A-16. The measures of controlling their weight are the same as for all other. Only thing we need to take care is, while doing exercise, weight should not fall on their joints inappropriately.  Walking, cycling, yoga and floor exercises are good for them. Their diet need to be low calorie. Overweight can damage their joints. These children are prone to diabetes and overweight can further increase this possibility.

Q-17. My child is obese and not ready to do any kind of physical work. What to do?

A-17. These is common scenario once a person becomes fat. Dullness and laziness are two dangerous side effects of obesity. You need to engage your child in fun activities that need physical movement. If you will start thinking, you will find lot of such activities.

Q-18. My child gets tired after doing a little running or any physical activity. What can be the cause?

A-18. You need to consult your doctor and get your child’s physical check up done thoroughly. Your child may have anemia or some heart problem or an initial sign of some major illness.

Q-19. My child is very stubborn and becomes violent if you don’t give him the thing that he wants. How to control him?

A-19. First of all who taught him this way of getting things when denied? Unknowingly we teach wrong things to our children by inappropriate parenting. It is easier to teach our children good things if  we deal with them appropriately since the inception. It becomes difficult to erase the learnt things and even more difficult is rewritting the new one. But don't worry you can do it by using Behavior Modification Technique (BMT). See section on BMT. 

Q-20. My son is 9 years old and is able to understand the lesion but unable to read or write. He gets confused between ‘m’ and ‘w’, ‘t’ and ‘f’. He changes the order of the letters i.e if it is ‘saw’ he may write ‘was’.

A-20.  Your son might have dyslexia. Dyslexia is a learning problem some kids have. Dyslexia makes it tough to read and spell. The problem is inside the brain. Dyslexic person's brain has trouble processing letters and sounds. That makes it tough to break words into separate speech sounds, like b-a-t for bat. This doesn't mean the person is dumb. Plenty of smart and talented people struggle with dyslexia. With some help and a lot of hard work, a kid who has dyslexia can learn to read and spell.

Q-21.What is Dyslexia? How to diagnose it?

A-21.Dyslexia is a learning disability. Dyslexia may affect several different functions.

Visual dyslexia is characterized by number and letter reversals and the inability to write symbols in the correct sequence. Auditory dyslexia involves difficulty with sounds of letters or groups of letters. The sounds are perceived as jumbled or not heard correctly. Dysgraphia refers to the child's difficulty holding and controlling a pencil so that the correct markings can be made on the paper. Letter and number reversals are the most common warning sign. Such reversals are fairly common up to the age of 7 or 8 and usually diminish by that time. If they do not, it may be appropriate to test for dyslexia or other learning problems.

The best thing to do is to go to a specialist who can help figure out what's wrong.

Q-22.What kind of specialist can help us?

A-22. A clinical psychologist can help you to diagnose the exact problem of your child through various tests.  Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the assessment and diagnosis of psychiatric problems. 

Q-23. How to proceed with Psychological tests?

A-23.  A specialist in learning disabilities knows a lot about learning problems that kids have and what to do about them. During a visit with a specialist, a kid might take some tests. But the idea isn't to get a good grade; it's to spot problems. Discovering a learning disability is the first step toward getting help that will make it easier for the kid to learn.There are many factors the psychologist or other health professional reviews to diagnose the disability. The testing determines the child's functional reading level and compares it to reading potential, which is evaluated by an intelligence test. All aspects of the reading process are examined to pinpoint where the breakdown is occurring. The testing further assesses how a child takes in and processes information and what the child does with the information. The tests determine whether a child learns better by hearing information (auditory), looking at information (visual), or doing something (kinesthetic). They also assess whether a child performs better when allowed to give information (output), by saying something (oral), or by doing something with their hands (tactile-kinesthetic). The tests also evaluate how all of these sensory systems (modalities) work in conjunction with each other.

The tests administered are standardized and are considered highly reliable. The child should not feel as if there is something wrong because testing is occurring. Many of the tests use a game-type or puzzle format which can help make the child feel more comfortable. Children should get a good night's sleep prior to the testing and have a good breakfast.

Q-24. If my child is Dyslexic then what to do?

A-24. There are ways to help your child overcome the learning disability.

Most kids with dyslexia can learn to read with the right kind of teaching. They might learn new ways for remembering sounds. For example, "p" and "b" are called brother sounds because they're both "lip poppers." You have to press your lips together to make the sound.

Thinking about the way the mouth needs to move to make sounds can help kids read more easily. I have mentioned about MIRROR TECHNIQUE for speech therapy which can be used here as well.

Kids with dyslexia also might use flash cards. You can help your kid by recording the classroom lessons and homework assignments instead of taking notes about them.

Extra time for tests is really important, so kids with dyslexia have enough time to finish and show their teacher how much they have learned. Computers help a lot, too. You can get programs that "read" books out loud from the computer or even download recorded books to an iPod!

You can use poetry to teach reading.

Finger Games helps to learn language and numbers. Visit:www.lil-fingers.com/games/, www.indianchild.com/fingerplay_fun_for_kids.htm,www.breitlinks.com/finger_plays.htm,www.ehow.com>parenting

Encourage reading from a young age.

TRUGS (Teach Reading Using Games) are very useful and once you understand the basic concept you can prepare them on your own according to your child’s requirements.Visit:www.readsuccessfully.com

Those who have difficulties in numbers and calculations can be helped differently. First make the concept of numbers and calculation clear.(see my answers for Q-2 & 3). Even you can use BEADS AND TREAD to make your child know and learn about numbers. It is freely available in market and there are different colours and shapes of the beads. You can form a group of say 5 beads of either same colour or same shape and thread them counting one by one. You can join your child from the other side of the thread and compete. You can do addition/subtraction and even multiplication. For multiplication you will have to form clusters of same numbered beads- 4 clusters of 2 beads makes four times two, 4*2=8. You can extent this activity endlessly playing with the child

Then you may use NUMICON. Visit:www.numicon.com
You can make your own according to your child’s need.


Q-25. How can I use poetry to help my child and from where can I get good poetries?

A-25. Start with humorous poems that rhyme! Begin this activity by reading a poem to your child. Pass out a copy of the poem to your child and reread it. Then read the poem together chorally. Poetry lends itself to choral reading because of its rhythm. Once the child is comfortable reading the poem, use the poems to do some word study activities or you may encourage your child to search for rhyming words, or synonyms of words etc. but remember not to go very fast and not to expect too much at a time. You can go ahead adding new poems to your list. Gradually introduce new activities like narrating the meaning of the poem, describing the character in the poem etc. These will not only enhance the learning but also convert the rhythm of the poem into prose.

You can get good children poetries on net.


Q-26. How to encourage my child for reading?

A-26.Encouraging reading from a young age will help develop your child's confidence and ability.

A good rule of thumb is if a child is unable to read five or more words on a page of a book it is fair to assume that it is too difficult for him. There is nothing more disheartening than giving a child a book to read that he struggles with. He will spend all his time trying to read the words and not enjoying the actual story.

The following are some suggestions that parents may find useful to try to encourage their child to read:

Reading to a child – this improves listening skills, broadens interest in books and improves vocabulary.

Shared reading - the adult reads and the child joins in - is very useful. Encourage your child to join in by:

·         Discussing the books content with him

·         Discussing the pictures and asking him to describe what is happening or might happen

·         Running your finger along the line of print as you read

·         Suggest your child joins in by reading some words

·         Asking your child to retell the story in his own words.

Supported reading - this approach encourages the child to read to the adult and can gauge whether the child is able to read most of a book (nine out of every ten words). Encourage this by:

·         Looking at the books and pictures together

·         Asking the child to suggest what the story is about

·         Selecting two or three words or main characters to talk about

·         Allow a child time to work out words (it is recommended that you give the word after five second)

·         Helping with accuracy. Encourage your child to check guesswork by cross checking letters in a word.

Over learning - although this may seem tedious to you it is actually good to read a child’s favourite book over and over again. This helps to build familiarity and if a child has a poor short-term memory it reinforces his understanding of the story.

Silent Reading - children need the opportunity to read alone. Young children need time to browse and more skillful readers need independence and time to develop fluency. Encourage discussion about books the child has read, not only what the story was about, but also whether it was a good read.

Fun! - reading should be a pleasure. If you seem like you are enjoying it your child will pick up on this.

·         Make sure you are both comfortable and relaxed

·         Make reading part of your children’s daily routine

·         Use different voices for the characters

·         Use role play – you be one character and encourage your child to be anothe

Q-27. You have mentioned in many of your answers about finding own fun way methods for making your child learn, but how to do that?

A-27. I have  mentioned that once you will understand your child’s problem, accept it  and  get involved with your child’s daily things. You will automatically find newer ideas day by day. In the initial phase you definitely need help. Visit this site, it is excellent for making your child learn having fun. www.turtlediary.com

Q-28.What is Down syndrome?

A-28.Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder caused by an error in cell division that results in an extra 21st chromosome. The condition leads to impairments in both cognitive ability and physical growth that range from mild to moderate developmental disabilities. Through a series of screenings and tests, Down syndrome can be detected before and after a baby is born. 

The only factor known to affect the probability of having a baby with Down syndrome is maternal age. That is, less than one in 1,000 pregnancies for mothers less than 30 years of age results in a baby with Down syndrome. For mothers who are 44 years of age, about 1 in 35 pregnancies results in a baby with Down syndrome. Because younger women generally have more children, about 75 - 80% of children with Down syndrome are born to younger women.

Q-29.What causes Down syndrome?

A-29. Down syndrome occurs because of an abnormality characterized by an extra copy of genetic material on all or part of the 21st chromosome. Every cell in the body contains genes that are grouped along chromosomes in the cell's nucleus or center. There are normally 46 chromosomes in each cell, 23 inherited from your mother and 23 from your father. When some or all of a person's cells have an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21, the result is Down syndrome. 

The most common form of Down syndrome is known as Trisomy 21, a condition where individuals have 47 chromosomes in each cell instead of 46. This is caused by an error in cell division callednondisjunction, which leaves a sperm or egg cell with an extra copy of chromosome 21 before or at conception. Trisomy 21 accounts for 95% of Down syndrome cases, with 88% originating from nondisjunction of the mother's egg cell. 

The remaining 5% of Down syndrome cases are due to conditions called mosaicism and translocation. Mosaic Down syndrome results when some cells in the body are normal while others have Trisomy 21. Robertsonian translocation occurs when part of chromosome 21 breaks off during cell division and attaches to another chromosome (usually chromosome 14). The presence of this extra part of chromosome 21 causes Down some syndrome characteristics. Although a person with a translocation may appear physically normal, he or she has a greater risk of producing a child with an extra 21st chromosome.

Q-30.What are characteristics of people with Down syndrome?

A-30.Individuals with Down syndrome often have distinct physical characteristics, unique health issues, and variability in cognitive development. Physical characteristics include:

·         Eyes that have an upward slant, oblique fissures, epicanthic skin folds on the inner corner, and white spots on the iris

·         Low muscle tone

·         Small stature and short neck

·         Flat nasal bridge

·         Single, deep creases across the center of the palm

·         Protruding tongue

·         Large space between large and second toe

·         A single flexion furrow of the fifth finger

·         High arched palate

·         Flat feet

·         Flat Occiput

·         Low set ears
Short ear canal

Individuals with Down syndrome usually have cognitive development profiles indicative of mild to moderate mental retardation. However, cognitive development in children with Down syndrome is quite variable. Children with Down syndrome often have a speech delay and require speech therapy to assist with expressive language. In addition, fine motor skills are delayed and tend to lag behind gross motor skills. Although many with the condition experience developmental delays, it is not uncommon for those with Down syndrome to attend school and become active, working members in the community. 

Q-31. What about the functions of internal organs of DS children?


·         The incidence of congenital heart diseases in newborn babies with Down syndrome is higher.

·         Individuals with DS are at increased risk for dysfunction of the Thyroid Gland.

·         Eye disorders are more common in people with DS. Almost half have Strabismus, in which the two eyes do not move in tandem. Refractive errors, requiring glasses or contacts are also common. Cataracts (opacity of the lens), Keratoconus (thin, cone-shaped corneas), and Glaucoma (increased eye pressures) are also more common in DS.

·         Hearing impairment and otological problems are more common in DS.

·         Males with Down syndrome usually cannot father children, while females demonstrate significantly lower rates of conception relative to unaffected individuals.

·         DS have less Immunity compared to normal children, so they are prone to cough/cold and gastrointestinal problems. 

·         Down syndrome increases the risk of Hirschsprung’s disease., in which the nerve cells that control the function of parts of the Colon are not present. This results in severe constipation. Other congenital anomalies occurring more frequently in DS include duodenal atresia and imperforate annus.

Q-32. What are the strengths of Down’s children?


A-32. Down’s children are very loving and caring. Their social quotient is very high. They remember people’s name with their faces and can relate appropriately when needed. They are fond of music and dance. They love you unconditionally and in multitude of what you give.

Most Important: Down’s children are trainable and educable. DO NOT STICK to the word educable in literal meaning. It depends upon individual’s ability to learn academics. The rule of learning formally, applies to these children the same way as it applies to normal children. As we know all our normal children are not equally able to learn academics, same way ability to learn academics differs in each DS child as well. All about basic academics and its methodology is mentioned in the book ‘Functional Skills” on this website and it is freely downloadable.

DS children are very good imitators, so you do whatever you want your child to do and he will learn automatically.

DS children do not get tired of monotony; in fact most of the time they enjoy typified work. This quality helps the parents to train the child positively. You can make the time-table of different activity, sit with your child, explain him, help him initially and you will see that one day you might forget something to do according to the set time-table but your child won’t.
They are happy the way ther are, witty and spontaneous.



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